Lebanon: Multisectoral Needs Analysis 2021 – April 2022 – Lebanon

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SUMMARY

Lebanon is currently facing a multi-faceted crisis characterized by an acute economic contraction caused by collapsing exchange rates, rising public debt, rising inflation and an impaired banking sector. political turmoil and governance challenges among others. In this regard, from December 2019 to October 2021, headline inflation reached 519%, peaking at 1874% for food and non-alcoholic beverages. This has led to a sharp decline in household purchasing power and rising poverty rates in all sections of the population. In addition, the economic crisis contributed to a gradual collapse of public services such as healthcare, water, sanitation and sanitation (WASH) and education, which was further exacerbated by the fuel crisis that began in the summer of 2021 and has since severely impacted the country’s electricity supply, with critical Impact on the health, water, transport and telecommunications sectors. As the fuel crisis eased towards the end of 2021, government power supply remained low, averaging less than 5 hours of power supply per day. This situation has strained public finances and service delivery, exacerbating existing vulnerabilities that are likely to be prolonged as households struggle to meet their basic needs as subsidies on staple foods, commodities and medical items are phased out will. Mounting economic hardship and frustration with the political system sparked frequent widespread protests and riots across the country, most commonly by blocking roads and highways to urge the Lebanese government to “deal with skyrocketing fuel prices” and more generally to ask for concrete financial means and economic measures to contain the crisis.

In addition, several additional systemic shocks have occurred since the beginning of the protracted socio-economic crisis and political collapse in October 2019. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated existing vulnerabilities and put additional pressure on an already overburdened and underfunded healthcare system. The pandemic has contributed significantly to the negative dynamics within the Lebanese economy. In addition, the extensive containment measures to limit the spread of COVID-19 negatively impacted the safety of women and children, with acute risks related to child protection (CP) and gender-based violence (GBV), including rising rates of child marriage and child labour, and engaging in verbal, physical, and sexual violence at home. Access to education has also been negatively impacted by the pandemic, with some schools closing during the 2020-2021 school year to stem the spread of COVID-19.

Finally, the August 2020 Beirut Port blasts killed at least 200, injured over 6,000 and left homeless, and caused over $5 billion in damage to residential, commercial, industrial and public infrastructure. The blasts have also caused further loss of economic activity, disrupted trade and lost tax revenues, and are exacerbating an already depleted economy. For example, the blast in Beirut destroyed most of Lebanon‘s strategic grain reserves, which is a major concern at the moment as Ukraine, which was the main supplier, suspended its exports following the conflict in Ukraine. This is likely to worsen the already fragile food situation for all population groups.

With this in mind, the 2021 Lebanon Multi-Sector Needs Assessment (MSNA) was conducted to support evidence-based decision-making for the 2022 Humanitarian Planning Cycle process and to facilitate planning between key humanitarian actors by providing updated information on multi-sectoral needs and Priorities for crisis-affected populations in Lebanon, in addition to other needs assessments already undertaken, such as the Vulnerability Assessment of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon (VASyR). To achieve this goal, the MSNA was implemented in coordination with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA). The research design and data collection was a collaborative process with members of the Emergency Operation Cell (EOC) and specific expertise from the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the United National Relief and Works Agency for the Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) for migrants and Palestinian refugees in Lebanon (PRL) and UN Women for technical assistance on gender equality and social inclusion issues.

Data for the 2021 Lebanese MSNA was collected at the household (HH) level through a nationwide HH survey. Data were collected with Lebanese HHs, PRL HHs and immigrant HHs in 24/26 Lebanese districts. Data collection was conducted from October 19 to December 4, 2021. The data was largely collected personally by trained enumerators from the REACH Initiative (REACH), IOM, Mercy Corps, Akkar Network for Development (AND), Terre des Hommes Foundation (TdH). , Danish Refugee Council (DRC), International Rescue Committee (IRC), Intersos, Save the Children, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), Humanity et Inclusion (HI) and Solidarités International (SI), with ACTED as REACH implementation partner. The questionnaire was provided via KOBO collect and the results were analyzed after being cleaned and weighted using both R and Excel software. The results for Lebanese HAs are district-level representative of the assessed districts with a 95% confidence level and a 10% margin of error. For both PRL and immigrant HH, the results are not generalisable to the total population of interest and indicative results are reported at the regional level (see Methodology section for more information). Cleaned data and analysis tables are publicly available in the REACH Resource Centre.

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