TEHRAN – Archaeologists have recently unearthed a wide range of relics and ruined structures dating back to the 4th millennium BC. found.
“We have uncovered evidence of early urbanization coinciding with the Uruk period (circa 4000 to 3100 BC),” ILNA quoted archaeologist Mohammad-Hossein Azizi Kharanaghi as saying on Sunday.
The finds were made during the third archaeological excavation season that just ended at the Kale-Kub archaeological site in Sarayan County, South Khorasan Province.
“Kale-Kub is one of the few prehistoric sites in eastern Iran that contains archaeological evidence and sequences of different cultures from the fifth to second millennium BC,” Azizi Kharanaghi said.
The development of urbanism in the Middle East during the 4th millennium BC has been an important debate for decades, and with the latest scientific discoveries there has been a revival of this intellectual discussion. Many archaeologists suggest that urban societies first arose in southern Mesopotamia and then expanded north and northwest.
In addition, evidence of early [cuneiform] During the investigation, a script came to light that also revealed pieces of pottery such as the beveled-rimmed bowls, the Banesh tray, the nose handle, and the beak ware common at the time.
“In the end, we found evidence of copper ore smelting, as well as significant evidence of an early example of administrative management,” added the archaeologist.
The team hopes their findings will shed new light on the people who lived there around 6,000 years ago. In addition, the archaeologists found remains of industrial architecture, adobe walls and potteries that testify to “social complexity and an administrative system”.
Azizi Kharanaghi is optimistic that her studies would elucidate the importance of the Kale-Kub site in identifying the zone of distribution of the ‘Beveled-edge pottery style’ through the classification and typology of the potteries discovered and a comparison between the pottery styles at this site with other sites, relating to this period.
“We are also trying to trace the possible routes eastward for this style of pottery and the interaction between east and west of Iran.
In modern Iran, these styles of pottery are reported from the Southwest, Central Zagros, Central Plateau and Southeast. Experts believe that finds in Kale-Kub show the expansion of this culture to the eastern part of Iran.
Interregional interactions had a significant impact on the movement of raw materials and production in the extended area. Due to Kale-Kub’s geographic location in eastern Iran and the existence of metal mines in the region, this site may have appeared in the fourth millennium BC. as a place of delivery in the interaction networks for southwestern Iran.
Referring to previous excavations of the site, Azizi Kharanaghi said: “In 2018, two trenches were opened to identify the stratigraphy of the large number of beveled-rimmed bowls, as well as other styles of pottery, dating to the fourth millennium B.C. B.C., which are already known in southwestern Iran.”
The first well-documented evidence of human habitation on the Iranian Plateau was found in several excavated cave and rock shelters located mainly in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran, dating to the Middle Palaeolithic or Mousterian period (c. 100,000 BC) are dated.
From the Caspian Sea in the north-west to Balochistan in the south-east, the Iranian plateau stretches almost 2,000 km. The country includes most of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan west of the Indus River and covers about 3,700,000 square kilometers. Although referred to as a “plateau”, it is far from flat but contains several mountain ranges, the highest peak being Damavand in the Alborz mountain range at 5610m and Dasht-e Loot east of Kerman in central Iran which is under 300m falls.